Professor Of English University of Montana Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. All languages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar. People who speak the same language are able to communicate because they intuitively know the grammar system of that language—that is, the rules of making meaning.
Anyone who has taught preschoolers will tell you that it is a challenge. While they are cute, funny and often eager to learn, preschoolers are also energetic, active and often difficult to keep on any particular task for more than a few minutes at a time.
That is why it takes a special kind of teacher and special ideas for your ESL preschool class to work. Games, stories and songs are the perfect answer to the challenge of teaching preschool ESL classes.
Why Games and Stories Work Research is beginning to show that preschoolers and other young learners actually do learn better through games. There are many reasons for this, including the theory of intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is the idea that people are motivated to do things because of internal factors.
Preschool children are not going to understand the advantages that knowing a second language will give them. They are probably also not thinking that they want to go to school to learn a second language - especially because they are still trying to grasp their first language.
That is why it is important to motivate them to want to do the class activities and children will be more likely to join in and enjoy themselves when given the option to participate in activities that incorporate play and physical movements. Other research includes the theory of activity-based learning or total physical response.
This theory states that movement stimulates neural networks and activates mental capacities, which are not activated when sitting at a desk. Children are more likely to be curious when presented with music, games and total physical response activities, and therefore are more likely to learn and retain knowledge.
An example of a total physical response activity would be making the shapes of the alphabet with your body, or using your body and props to imitate different types of weather, or using your voice, body, a prop or make believe to represent vocabulary or meaning.
For example a dull vocabulary idea is to ask children to pick up pictures off the floor and name them. To turn this into a total physical response activity and fun game tell your children they are pirates who have lost their treasure overboard and they must dive down and retrieve it.
Demonstrate by taking in a big breath, hold your breath and dive down and pick up one of the cards, then come up for air and ask the children to name the card, or you name it, depending on whether you are doing a speaking or listening activity.
Then tell the children which pictures to dive down and collect. You could make it even more dramatic by dimming the lights when the children dive down and turning them up when they surface.
There are other theories that explain why play works in the preschool ESL classroom. When you use games, songs and stories to teach ESL to your preschool students, you are relying on absorption by repetition. The more they hear and experience the vocabulary that you are teaching them, the more likely they will learn it.
But who wants to sit in a class simply repeating words and what they mean? Certainly not three to five year olds. You will soon have a classroom of unruly children who are not learning a thing. If you engage them in a game or song or story that uses the language you are teaching, however, they will understand and use the language simply from the exposure.
By using games, play, movement and song, all things that most preschoolers enjoy, learning language will be a fun and positive experience. The environment of play and games is a relaxed environment as long as you do not use competition at this age and allows the students to learn without the stress or fear of possible failure.
A final thought on learning through games stems from Dr. Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. In this theory, Gardner has defined several different areas of learning and also has explained that not everyone learns in the same ways.
The intelligences include the following: Learning and using spoken and written language Logical-mathematical intelligence: Logically analyzing problems, detecting patterns, reasoning. Performing, composing, and appreciating musical patterns.Making It Visual for ELL Students: Teaching History Using Maus.
Spark the engagement of English-language learners or reluctant readers with the graphic novel caninariojana.com visual information provided by the genre serves as a support for reading and critical engagement. How to Write a Rationale Adapted from SLATE Starter Sheet, NCTE, April The purpose of this Starter Sheet is to help teachers and English language arts departments to develop of Teachers of English.
Sacco, M.T. "Writing Rationales for Using Young Adult Literature in . Common purposes for learners writing in an EAP context include writing a research paper for publication in an English-speaking journal or writing a business report for a multinational company.
These learners may be less motivated to write stories or poetry, because they perceive that these tasks are not related to their needs. • Social Issues, ESL Songs For Teaching English, Creative Writing Prompts I used this lesson with middle school pre-intermediate and intermediate students.
The worksheet has three parts, the first is a lyrics gap-fill to get students familiar with the lyrics.5/5(4). Several more years of direct English instruction may be required before the students are fluent in all four skill areas (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary for academic success.
The good news for teachers from research in vocabulary development is that vocabulary instruction does improve reading comprehension (Stahl 2). However, not all approaches to teaching word meanings improve comprehension.