Share Long before the government bailouts of certain faltering businesses, during what has come to be called The Great Recessionthe U. For related reading, see How Governments Influence Markets. The Federal Reserve "The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance" provides a complete list of all subsidy recipients, including businesses, individuals and non-profits. Because there are so many industries receiving government assistance, this article will focus on three representative business sectors that receive subsidies:
Health Status and Health Care Access of Farm and Rural Populationsstates that both farm and rural populations experience lower access to health care along the dimensions of affordability, proximity, and quality, compared with their nonfarm and urban counterparts. Nonmetropolitan households are more likely to report that the cost of healthcare limits their ability to receive medical care.
In more remote counties, patients have to travel long distances for specialized treatment. These patients may substitute local primary care providers for specialists or they may decide to postpone or forego care from a specialist due to the burdens of cost and long travel times. According to the report, Access to Rural Health Care - A Literature Review and New Synthesisbarriers to healthcare result in unmet healthcare needs including lack of preventive and screening services, treatment of illnesses, and preventing patients from needing costly hospital care.
A An introduction to farm subsidies rural community is dependent on the health of its population. Access to medical care does not guarantee good health; however, access to healthcare is critical for a population's well-being and optimal health.
The challenges that rural residents face in accessing healthcare services contribute to health disparities.
What are barriers to healthcare access in rural areas? Health Insurance Coverage Individuals who do not have health insurance have reduced access to healthcare services. Uninsured people face barriers to care compared to people with health insurance coverage.
Rural uninsured are more likely to delay or forgo medical care because of the cost of care compared to those with insurance. A issue brief from the Kaiser Family Foundation points out that the rural uninsured, when compared to their urban counterparts, face greater difficulty accessing care due to the limited supply of rural healthcare providers who offer low-cost or charity healthcare.
The affordability of health insurance is a concern for rural areas. Premium increases tend to be higher where there is less competition among insurers. Workforce Shortages Healthcare workforce shortages have an impact on access to care in rural communities.
One measure of healthcare access is having a usual source of care. Having an adequate health workforce is necessary to providing that usual source of care. Some health researchers have argued that determining access by simply measuring provider availability is not adequate to fully understand healthcare access.
They contend that access measures should include healthcare service use and nonuse. For example, counting people who could not find an appropriate provider of care. A shortage of healthcare professionals in rural America can limit access to care by limiting the supply of available services.
As of September Primary Care HPSAs are scored on a range fromwith higher scores indicating greater need for primary care providers.
This November map highlights nonmetropolitan areas with primary care workforce shortages, with areas in darker green indicating higher nonmetro HPSA scores: Distance and Transportation People in rural areas are more likely to have to travel long distances to access healthcare services, particularly specialist services.
This can be a significant burden in terms of both time and money.
In addition, the lack of reliable transportation is a barrier to care. In urban areas, public transit is generally an option for patients to get to medical appointments; however, these transportation services are often lacking in rural areas.
Rural communities also have more elderly residents who have chronic conditions requiring multiple visits to outpatient healthcare facilities.
This becomes challenging without available public or private transportation. RHIhub's Transportation to Support Rural Healthcare topic guide has more resources and information about these issues for rural communities. Social Stigma and Privacy Issues In rural areas, where there is little anonymity, social stigma and privacy concerns are more likely to act as barriers to healthcare access.
Residents may be concerned about seeking care for issues related to mental health, substance abuse, sexual health, pregnancy, or even common chronic illnesses due to unease or privacy concerns.
This may be caused by personal relationships with their healthcare provider or others that work within the healthcare facility. In addition, concerns about other residents noticing them utilizing services such as mental healthcare can be a concern.
Co-location or integration of behavioral health services with primary care can help. Poor Health Literacy Health literacy, which impacts a patient's ability to understand health information and instructions from their healthcare providers, is also a barrier to accessing healthcare.
This is a particular concern in rural communities, where lower educational levels and higher incidents of poverty often impact residents. To learn more about low health literacy in rural America, see What are the roles of literacy, health literacy, and educational attainment in the health of rural residents?
Why is primary care access important for rural residents? Primary care is the most basic and, along with emergency services, the most vital service needed in rural communities. Primary care providers offer a broad range of services and treat a wide spectrum of medical issues.
The American Academy of Family Physicians characterizes primary care as:Farm Subsidies Words | 4 Pages. Farm subsidies have become an somewhat debated topic in recent year, with increasing numbers of critics believing that these are detrimental not only to the economy, but also by implication to the health of Americans.
The Origin of American Farm Subsidies Our Economic Past I n the United States how did we go from having no role for the federal government in farming to hav-ing government intertwined in all aspects of farm-ing from planting to harvesting to selling crops?
The Constitution is clear on the subject. Article 1. Farm subsidies are various forms of payments from the federal government put in place in an effort to stabilize prices, keep farmers in business, and ensure quality of crops.
The federal government currently pays $20 billion in cash each year to US farmers and spent . Congressional Research Service Reports.
The Congressional Research Service is the public policy research arm of the United States Congress and solely serves Congress as a source of nonpartisan, objective analysis and research on all legislative issues.
Through Congress, the National Agricultural Law Center periodically receives CRS reports related to agriculture and food issues. A subsidy or government incentive is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
Although commonly extended from government, the term subsidy can relate to any type of support – for example from NGOs or as implicit subsidies.
You Are What You Grow – Article on farm subsidies from The New York Times. Agriculture Subsidy Growth Statistics in India-Figures at India / State / Region level.