A deadly attack in Charlottesville, Va. President Donald Trump, always quick to denounce radical Islamic terrorist attacks, was widely criticized for taking longer to explicitly condemn white nationalists.
An Overview 1 K. The United States US has identified the protection of national systems and infrastructure, such as the transportation, communication, water supply, and agriculture networks, as priorities to defend against terrorism.
Terrorism is widely defined as the unlawful use of force, violence, or implied harm against persons and property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any element of either, to further political, religious, or ideological aims.
Agroterrorism is the deliberate introduction of detrimental agents, biological and otherwise, into the agricultural and food processing system with the intent of causing actual or perceived harm. The broad areas of agriculture that could provide targets in an agroterrorism event are farm animals and livestock, plant crops, and the food processing, distribution, and retailing system.
The term bioterrorism will be widely used in this discussion and, in fact, is closely related to agroterrorism. Bioterrorism is defined as the use of biological agents in a deliberate, harmful attack, or terrorism using the weapons of biological warfare such as anthrax, smallpox, or other pathogens.
In the discussion herein, biological agents can be considered the most probable weapon used to launch an agroterrorism event. Both are considered crucial steps in combating the threat of agroterrorism.
Their roles in mitigating potential threats will be further discussed in this factsheet. Even without agroterrorism, livestock and crop diseases cost the US economy billions of dollars annually. These are the baseline losses to which the financial impact of an actual agroterrorism event would be added.
If an agroterrorism event occurred in the US, the potential for disruption of our export market would be immense. International trade is crucial, as it provides a market for a major part of our crop production, and a growing share of meat output.
Proportionately, the US agriculture industries rely on export markets more heavily than other sectors of US industry. An agroterrorism event that instigated fear or even uncertainty in our international customers could be financially devastating to US agricultural interests.
Vulnerability of the US Agriculture System Various factors lead to the heightened state of vulnerability of the US to an agroterrorism event. As previously discussed, agriculture, food processing, and food retailing contribute significantly to the US economy, despite the perception of the ceaseless encroachment of urban growth into rural areas.
As urban growth has occurred, agricultural operations, including farms, packinghouses, and processing plants have become larger, more centralized, and more intensive. It is this type of industrial concentration that perhaps increases the vulnerability of the US agriculture system; as almost all agricultural sectors consolidate, their overall size generally increases.
Thus, the impact of a targeted agroterrorism event affecting just one entity could still have a serious, adverse impact. For example, foot-and-mouth disease FMD confined to a very small, geographically distinct herd is a vastly different situation than FMD occurring through intentional spread of the disease in a large cattle operation.
Although large operations typically have greater economies-of-scale, they also lead to these types of vulnerabilities. There are other reasons to be aware of the need to better security in agricultural operations.
It is difficult and expensive to secure large areas of farmland with fences, gates and monitoring devices. Yet, it is incumbent upon producers to provide security in these areas.
Packinghouses and processing plants are more easily controlled from a physical perimeter standpoint, but conversely have more personnel that need to be screened and then trained in specifics of plant security.
More and more auditors focus on specific areas where their clients can improve their procedures and practices. Defense against terrorism must become ingrained in the normal operations of all agricultural operations before the US can expect an improvement in the current state of readiness against an attack.
One broad area of vulnerability, as discussed, is the area of agriculture and specifically food production. The term food security, which traditionally meant the stability and supply of sufficient food for a given population, suddenly took on a different meaning.
The FDA is responsible for developing and implementing regulations on the following major provisions of the Act: The definition of food used in these regulations includes food and beverages for human and animal consumption, including dietary supplements, infant formula, and food additives.
The Act was designed to improve the ability of the US to prevent, prepare for, and respond to bioterrorism and other public health emergencies. FSMA was created to allow for a more proactive approach towards food safety, focusing on the most vulnerable areas for possible adulteration during food processing.
While FSMA consists of nearly 50 new rules, regulations and guidances, there are five foundational rules that exemplify this proactive approach.
These five rules cover topics such as intentional adulteration, preventative controls for human food and animal food, standards for produce safety, establishing a Foreign Supplier Verification Program for importers, and a program for the accreditation of third-party auditors.
The Foreign Supplier Verification Program for importers and establishing a program for the accreditation of third-party auditors will help address our concerns over imported foods. Thus, the cost of prevention is far less than a single large agroterrorism event.To better understand the roots and threat of militant Islam, here's a closer look at how modern terrorism has evolved in the Middle East and South Asia.
Targets have included the United States. A string of incidents over the past month has served as a reminder that despite the intense, decadelong focus on the jihadist threat, domestic terrorism is still an issue in the United States. On Aug. 5, Wade Page opened fire on the congregation of a Sikh temple in .
Terrorist Threat in the United States. The threat of terrorism to the United States remains despite proactive law enforcement efforts and significant legislative counterterrorism initiatives.
The overall level of terrorist-related acts in the United States declined in the early s, when compared to figures for the s and s, but has increased steadily during the past five years. CT Overview: United States. Nations: CT Overviews, Research Papers.
Author: Michael Robillard US counter-terrorism strategy shifted along with the terrorism threat picture. While the Bush administration’s counter-terrorism strategy will likely be most remembered for its emphasis on boots on the ground and detention, the Obama.
Sep 19, · Terrorism Threat Assessment Featured In light of the global increase in the number and lethality of terrorist attacks, it has become imperative that nations, states, and private citizens become more involved in a strategic vision to recognize, prepare for, and — if possible — prevent such events.
Overview. The threat ISIS poses in the Middle East and fears of homegrown terrorist attacks in the U.S. will keep national security and terrorism issues at the forefront for