The name was changed to Liberty Baptist College in before settling on Liberty University in Liberty University's tax exempt status was formally recognized by the IRS in
This attack on personal freedom was led by the Congress of the United States. It was strongly supported by an alarmingly diverse band of helpers ranging from our government's executive branch to the AFL-CIO to church groups, the Veterans of Foreign Wars and employers in America's media, information, and educational industries.
Dozens of citizens were jailed, hundreds moved to other countries, and thousands lost their jobs. Several of the accused died from the stress and strain of having their personal beliefs and opinions ominously questioned by their own government and the labor unions to which they belonged.
Those who were not personally or professionally persecuted became self-censoring and timid in order to keep their paychecks and avoid being publicly condemned and denounced.
As a result, a pall of mediocrity settled over cultural and artistic production in America.
The blacklist was not a new witches' brew concocted by the Association of Motion Picture Producers AMPP to protect the movie industry from a new threat, "Communist infiltration. Our own government and assorted "defenders of American ideals" have periodically shelved our First Amendment rights whenever it has conveniently suited their cause to do so.
Do you remember reading about the Alien and Sedition Acts ofthe government seizure of abolitionist literature in the s or the ruthless actions taken against railroad strikers in the s in your high school history classes? The motion picture blacklist era was simply the calculated product of movie studio executives acting from primal economic fear.
They believed the film industry would lose vast portions of its audience if they didn't cooperate with Congressional investigating committees. Just like today, the primary concern of studio executives during the blacklist was not politics or art, but the bottom line.
As a result, several hundred performers whose only "crime" was belonging to or supporting organizations or causes deemed "subversive," were sacrificed by the film industry to a manufactured and manipulated national hysteria over the threat of Communist world domination.
Unbelievably, the Guilds knowingly cooperated with the blacklist process, helping to strengthen and perpetuate it. It was no coincidence that the vast majority of those blacklisted in Hollywood had been in the forefront of the struggle to organize and gain union recognition for actors, writers and directors.
When the Guilds were being organized, not all creative professionals in the film industry considered themselves "laborers" like steel or auto workers employed for "wages" paid by profiteering bosses like U.
They considered themselves "artists" joined in artistic collaboration with producers. A large number of the actors, directors and writers accepted the need for a guild or union, but they wanted something like a gentleman's club capable of providing profitable, chummy arrangements with film producers.
They furnished most of the "friendly witnesses" to the Congressional hearings they helped orchestrate.
Like the purposeful blacklisting of entertainment union organizers, it was clearly no accident that the passage of the union-debilitating Taft-Hartley Act in coincided with the start of HUAC's motion picture investigation in the fall of that year.
The third historical element contributing to blacklist hysteria was the dissolution of the alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union shortly after World War II.
The quick turnaround from trusted friend to deeply feared enemy created strong anti-Soviet, anti-Communist fear in most Americans. Our government used that fear to build a national security mentality and the far-reaching defense and intelligence systems necessary to combat the worldwide spread of Soviet Communism and the potential "Communist subversion" of the United States.
For anyone with domestic scores to settle, questioning someone's loyalty to America or linking them to Communist activities served as an effective device to weaken and isolate one's political enemies.
For their own political gain, exposure and blacklisting of "subversive" citizens was taken up first by Republicans, then by Democrats. Finally, it must also be said that among the supporters of the blacklist in America and Hollywood were those who genuinely believed that Soviet Communism was actually threatening the United States.
They thought American Communists were the pawns of a Moscow-directed conspiracy aimed at conquering the U. After all, Soviet Communists had just acquired the atomic bomb and would soon invade Czechoslovakia. On one hand, their first loyalty as unions should have been to those members faced with loss of employment as the result of being blacklisted.
On the other hand, like the major studio executives, they feared that such loyalty to individual members would significantly damage the film industry and the Guilds. They thought such loyalty to members labeled "subversive" would create the perception in the American public that the movies and the Guilds were subversive themselves.
That would lead to a much more massive loss of movie jobs because they feared the American public would simply stop attending films made by and with Communist sympathizers. Convincing themselves that they were doing the greatest good for the greatest number of their members, the Guilds finally caved in to the pressures of the blacklist era, fully cooperating with investigators and turning their backs on members accused of being "subversive.
InEddie Cantor, the second President of the Guild, stated: He said SAG would "work sympathetically with every organization striving to attain the general betterment of working conditions through the entire field of motion picture activity.
Leaked testimony by ex-Communist John L. SAG's public response read, "To smear prominent persons without any reliable evidence is to play into the hands of Hitler and Stalin by confusing the innocent with the guilty.After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message: It’s Time To Go.
Gates of Vienna has moved to a new address.
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Student council speech idea list including ten topics and tips on how to write smart to be elected as president, secretary or treasurer in a self-governance body at educational institutes.
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As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria. Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo.
Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from caninariojana.com EQAO Office Suite 2 Carlton Street Toronto ON.