Notes and Fragments 1. His father worked as sexton in the local church. In his early youth, Heidegger was being prepared for the priesthood.
While interpretations of Nietzsche's overman vary wildly, here are a few of his quotes from Thus Spoke Zarathustra: Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do you want to be the ebb of this great flood, and even go back to the beasts rather than overcome man?
What is the ape to man? A laughingstock or established embarrassment.
You have made your way from worm to man, and much in you is still worm. Once you were apes, and even now, too, man is more ape than any ape Let your will say: Amor fati and the eternal recurrence[ edit ] Rock on Lake Silvaplana where Nietzsche conceived of the idea of Eternal return.
Nietzsche may have encountered the idea of the Eternal Recurrence in the works of Heinrich Heinewho speculated that one day a person would be born with the same thought-processes as himself, and that the same applied to every other individual. Nietzsche expanded on this thought to form his theory, which he put forth in The Gay Science and developed in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
Schopenhauer directly influenced this theory. This idea of eternal recurrence became a cornerstone of his nihilism, and thus part of the foundation of what became existentialism.
He gradually backed-off of this view, and in later works referred to it as a thought-experiment. And mere will be nothing new in it, but every pain and every joy and every thought and every sigh—everything unspeakably small and great in your life—must come again to you, and in the same sequence and series The eternal hourglass will again and again be turned—and you with it, dust of dust!
Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment, in which you would answer him: Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. September Nietzsche's work addresses ethics from several perspectives: In the field of meta-ethicsone can perhaps most accurately classify Nietzsche as a moral skeptic ; meaning that he claims that all ethical statements are false, because any kind of correspondence between ethical statements and "moral facts" remains illusory.
This forms part of a more general claim that no universally true fact exists, roughly because none of them more than "appear" to correspond to reality. Instead, ethical statements like all statements remain mere "interpretations. Sometimes Nietzsche may seem to have very definite opinions on what he regards as moral or as immoral.
Note, however, that one can explain Nietzsche's moral opinions without attributing to him the claim of their truth. For Nietzsche, after all, we needn't disregard a statement merely because it expresses something false.
On the contrary, he depicts falsehood as essential for "life". He mentions a "dishonest lie", discussing Wagner in The Case of Wagner as opposed to an "honest" one, recommending further to consult Plato with regard to the latter, which should give some idea of the layers of paradox in his work.
In the juncture between normative ethics and descriptive ethicsNietzsche distinguishes between "master morality" and "slave morality". Although he recognizes that not everyone holds either scheme in a clearly delineated fashion without some syncretismhe presents them in contrast to one another.
Some of the contrasts in master vs. Nietzsche elaborated these ideas in his book On the Genealogy of Moralityin which he also introduced the key concept of ressentiment as the basis for the slave morality. Nietzsche's primarily negative assessment of the ethical and moralistic teachings of Christianity followed from his earlier considerations of the questions of God and morality in the works The Gay Science and Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
These considerations led Nietzsche to the idea of eternal recurrence. Nietzsche primarily meant that, for all practical purposes, his contemporaries lived as if God were dead, though they had not yet recognized it. Nietzsche believed this "death" had already started to undermine the foundations of morality and would lead to moral relativism and moral nihilism.
As a response to the dangers of these trends he believed in re-evaluating the foundations of morality to better understand the origins and motives underlying them, so that individuals might decide for themselves whether to regard a moral value as born of an outdated or misguided cultural imposition or as something they wish to hold true.
Social and political views[ edit ] This section possibly contains original research. September Learn how and when to remove this template message While a political tone may be discerned in Nietzsche 's writings, his work does not in any sense propose or outline a "political project.
Walter Kaufmann put forward the view that the powerful individualism expressed in his writings would be disastrous if introduced to the public realm of politics.God’s death as connoting the death of the God of the philosophers, to use Pascal’s phrase.
Insofar as popular literature even attempts to wrestle with Nietzsche’s pronouncement, the secularization thesis is probably the dominant understanding. John Grahm: That God continued to exist even after his physical death placed upon Him by people.
Where we are not contented with this, we have even let him die in spirit and in thoughts. We have lost the meaning and the belief of having a God. Nietzsche philosophy was based on atheism (Saugstad ), Nietzsche had a "basic acceptance of Feuerbach's view that human beings incented God by devising of any sense of their own powers.
It wasn't just it didn't believe in religion, It . The death of God didn’t strike Nietzsche as an entirely good thing. Without a God, the basic belief system of Western Europe was in jeopardy, as he put it in Twilight of the Idols: “When one gives up the Christian faith, one pulls the right to Christian morality out from under one's feet.
Eternal return (also known as eternal recurrence) is a theory that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space.
The theory is found in Indian philosophy and in ancient Egypt and was subsequently taken up by the Pythagoreans and Stoics. Friedrich Nietzsche (–) was a German philosopher and cultural critic who published intensively in the s and s.
He is famous for uncompromising criticisms of traditional European morality and religion, as well as of conventional philosophical ideas and social and political pieties associated with modernity.