Monasticism or monachism, literally the act of "dwelling alone" Greek monos, monazein, monachoshas come to denote the mode of life pertaining to persons living in seclusion from the world, under religious vows and subject to a fixed rule, as monksfriarsnunsor in general as religious. The basic idea of monasticism in all its varieties is seclusion or withdrawal from the world or society.
Forest constitute some of the most complex natural ecosystems of the world. Environment may be analyzed into a number of factors, such as Soil, Moisture, Wind, Temperature etc. The psycho physiological influence of trees in the form of purified air, clean water, rests and recreation, scenic enjoyment reduced noise level and spiritual replenishment are being fully appreciated.
The influence of forest on their environment forms part of a vast and complex relationship between environment and forest vegetation Environment generally refers to the sum total of various components of universe that affect life on this earth such as soil, water, and climate etc.
Man in generally interferes the environment by destroying vegetation through over-exploitation and mismanagement. Forest improves the environment in many ways such as: Relative humidity of air is increased.
These add large quantities of organic matter in soil by which water and nutrient holding capacity of soil is increased.
Domestic animals as well. In the past, consideration of forests, influence on climate was focused at the microclimate or local level. More recently, increasing attention has been directed at the potential, impact of forests on global conditions.
External influences, particularly fire, grazing and browzing animals and humans, affect markedly the nature of sites and their capacity to support tree growth.
As the forest becomes established and develops, the site itself is greatly changed. Forest cover moderates the extreme diurnal temperature regime of open sites resulting in more uniform conditions.
Wind velocity is slowed in the vicinity of tree crowns and becomes negligible within the forest.
Trees crowns intercept sunlight and alter the quantity and quality of radiation reaching forest floor compared with that reaching open sites. On the forest floor, accumulating layers of leaves, twigs and other litter attract a characteristic grouping of plants and animals that live on decaying organic matter and on each other.
Biotic Environment Ablotic Environment The physical environment controls the organisms, and organisms also influences and control the abiotic environment in many ways. Influence on Air Temperature Forest vegetation reduces mean annual temperature five feet, above ground from 0.
The effect of a forest in reducing temperature Is much greater at 5 feet above ground than in the tree crowns. The following table shows the extent to which species influences the effect of vegetation on air temperature.
Concurrent conclusion of various investigation on the effect of forests on air temperature are: Influence on Precipitation Air of forest is cooler and moister, than a-r in the open. Forest increases the precipitation of any 3rea.
As air cools in rising, precipitation increases with increase in elevation. The effect of forest vegetation on precipitation relates to its effect on: The forested mountains increase precipitation with increase in elevation to a much greater degree than denuded mountains.
Effect of forest on precipitation varies with the species, coniferous trees having a greater influence than broadleaved species Weber, Forest cover profoundly influences evaporation of water from the land. Influence on Air Currents. A forest break or moderate the force of air currents they serve to protect lands lying to their lee against cold and dry winds and against winds of high velocity.
Influence on Atmospheric Humidity The effect of forest vegetation. Influence on Evaporation Vegetation and particularly forests, in checking the velocity of wind at and near the soil surface, in slightly raising relative humidity of the air in shading the soil, In lowering temperature and in covering the mineral soil with a mantle of leaves and other litter, retards rapid loss of moisture from mineral soil.
Loss of moisture through evaporation from surface soil in the open on a windy day may be five times as great as loss of moisture from forest soil of similar character under protection of forest cover.caninariojana.com: Brilliant Green: The Surprising History and Science of Plant Intelligence (): Stefano Mancuso, Alessandra Viola, Joan Benham, Michael Pollan: Books.
FIRST EDITION PUBLISHER’S NOTE. The artist’s eye and philosopher’s spirit which are Roerich’s, are as a magnet.
Drawn by their power, there flows into Roerich’s being a stream of experiences which he is able to transmute into beauty by that spiritual alchemy which is possessed by the teachers of men.
More than billion people rely on forests to some extent for their livelihoods, according to the U.N., and 10 million are directly employed in forest management or conservation.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to agriculture. Agriculture – cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to .
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In forests, animals can take shelter under trees in heavy summers and rain. Air pollution causes diseases of various types. So growing plants on the roadside, parks, etc. helps minimize the gaseous pollution.